Monthly Archives: June 2015

Hike to Hundred Acre Field and Mike’s Knob

We had a stunning and memorable hike, and many thanks to Betty and Robin Reeves for their conservation efforts in preserving this beautiful farm.  This is a community and agricultural heritage asset.  You will notice the cows grazing in the summer mountaintop pasture; this is Robin’s beef herd, some of which originated from my father’s beef cattle stock many years ago.

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The Stalker

Our tomato plants are looking strong and healthy; however, a few weeks ago I noticed an odd tomato plant looking very sickly.  It was completely wilted, and it was the only plant looking like this.  Upon closer inspection, I noticed a whole in the stem.  It was obvious this plant wasn’t going to make it so I cut if off at the base, and left a sucker which is maturing nicely.  I am thankful for that sucker because this is the only plant I have of this variety of tomato this year.  We have at least 20 varieties of tomatoes growing this year.

I am always curious what disease or pest is causing distress to my vegetables so I sliced into the plant stem to see what I could learn.  I eventually found the persistent pest working his way up the stem:  A Stalk Borer

This is our first experience with this pest.  Luckily, we haven’t had any other issues.  We are simply observing, and will keep this information in mind for the future.  I would like to work on trying to cut down on some of the potential host plants in the area, but still building up our beneficials’ habitat.  We will not spray, but will work with managing cover crops.

Here are a few photos that we took and then info follows that I found online (http://ipm.ncsu.edu/AG271/corn_sorghum/stalk_borer.html):

Stalk Borer

Stalk Borer

Stalk Borer and damaged tomato stem

Stalk Borer and damaged tomato stem

Stalk Borer
Papaipema nebris (Guenee),Noctuidae, LEPIDOPTERA


DESCRIPTION

Adult – The forewings of this moth are basicallyreddish- or grayish-brown marked with distinct white spots or obscure smoky areas. The outer third is paler and bordered by a thin white line. The hind wings are grayish brown on the upper surface and fawn gray below. The wingspan ranges from 25 to 40 mm in diameter.Egg – The longitudinally ribbed egg may be spherical or slightly flattened and measures 0.4 to 0.6 mm in diameter. White when first deposited, it gradually turns brownish-gray or amber before hatching.

Larva – Basically brown, the early larval instars have a dark brown band around the middle and brown or purple longitudinal stripes on all but the first four segments. The mature larva is solid white or light purple and may reach a length of 31.8 mm. Color plate.

Pupa – About 16 to 22 mm in length, the light brown pupa gradually darkens as it matures.


BIOLOGY

Distribution – The stalk borer occurs in all areas east of the Rocky Mountains from southern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Highest populations are associated with fields and fence rows with large-stemmed weeds. Economically significant infestations are most common in the Piedmont, particularly in no-till plantings.Host Plants – Stalk borers tunnel in almost any large- stemmed plant. Their host range encompasses at least 44 families and 176 species of plants. Some cultivated crops subject to infestation include corn, cotton, potato, tomato, alfalfa, rye, barley, pepper, spinach, beet, and sugarbeet. Although many weedy plants are infested, giant ragweed is preferred.

Damage – Stalk borers migrating from an earlier host infest corn seedlings 6 to 60 cm (2 to 24 inches) high, causing two types of injury. Larvae that enter the plant through the lower stalk tunnel upwards, severing the leaves from below. In this case, infested stalks are hollow and apparently healthy green leaves wilt and die. Other larvae climb plants, enter from the top, and feed on buds and rolled leaves. As they unfurl, the new leaves display ragged holes which increase in size as the leaves display ragged holes which increase in size as the leaves develop. Both forms of injury result in destruction of tassels, production of suckers and deformation of the upper plant. Soon after borers enter the seedlings, the stems often break. Frass is usually evident around the base of more mature infested plants. Once past the “whorl” stage, however, corn is somewhat resistant to the stalk borer and recovers more readily from damage. Damage is sporadic but most commonly associated with the border rows of conventionally planted corn and with no-till plantings.

Life History – Stalk borers overwintering as eggs on weedy plants. In May, the newly emerged larvae feed as leaf-miners on broadleaf plants or as stem borers on grasses. On all hosts, larvae eventually bore into the stem and feed until they kill or outgrow their host. When this occurs, they emerge at night and tunnel into new plants, including seedling corn. Developing through 7 to 16 instars, stalk borers mature in their second host. Late in July, the borers emerge, construct individual cells in the soil, and begin a 4-week pupal period. Stalk borer moths emerge in late summer and deposit eggs singly or in masses between the leaf sheath and stems where they remain until the following spring. One generation occurs each year.


CONTROL

Stalk borers cannot be controlled once they have entered the plant; therefore, control measures should concentrate on prevention. Destruction of weeds in fields and along fence rows results in the elimination of many primary hosts from which the borers infest corn. Where applicable, systemic insecticides may be effective when applied in areas of highest potential damage. For specific control information, consult the current North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

Our Honey is ready!

Our honey bees survived the winter and are strong.  They are happy making honey!  One hive that was weak going into the winter didn’t make it, but the other three are strong, and Glenn started another hive with some of those bees and a new queen.  We will let them store all of their honey so they can build up reserves and go into the winter strong.

The other three hives, however, are strong and making plenty of delicious and nutritious honey.  If you want our pure and natural Bee Branch Farm Honey, get in touch.  This first honey of the season is a poplar/blackberry blend and it is light and very sweet.  The 8oz honey gift jars are $6 each.  You can see a photo of the gift jars on our honey page.  Everyone loves a gift of honey.

See below to learn more about our WNC nectar flow season:  Typical Flowering Season for Nectar Flow.

I find it fascinating to observe the honey bees, and this year they were very interested in our young asparagus.  The asparagus bed was its own little microcosm.  Here is a great description from a fellow beekeeper in Arkansas.

Typical-Flowering-Seasons-for-Western-North-Carolina-Honey-and-Pollen-Sources-Edd-Buchanan-John-Mundy-Chris-Mathis

Southern Girl Cornbread

The gauntlet has been thrown down or, in this case, the cast iron skillet.  It all began with my weekly email to our farm families where I include various info about our veggies, recipes and supper ideas.  I shared our previous night’s supper of beans and greens with cornbread.  I shared the very easy and basic recipe for cornbread that my husband makes:

First, you need a cast iron pan (really it is better) to cook your cornbread, and preheat your oven to 400.  1 cup cornmeal mix, 2 Tablespoons of Butter melted, 1/2 cup sugar, and enough milk to get it moving around when you mix it.. bake approx 20 minutes.

Well…Sandra B., one of our farm families called me out.  ” Just gotta tell you. Southern girls never put sugar in cornbread. 😍”  While in all reality Sandra is correct because neither my husband nor I grew up eating cornbread  made with sugar or with a cornmeal mix, I did let her know that this southern girl will gladly eat whatever her southern husband is willing to cook.  In this case, a quick and easy cornbread recipe that was a comfort food to him in grad school at UNC.

Here is a real southern cornbread recipe compliments of Sandra B., who does know her southern cooking.

Sandra B’s Cornbread recipe:
Southern cornbread, as opposed to sugary corn muffins, is mostly about technique.  This recipe is great for making cornbread dressing, btw.
Put about 6 Tbls of Crisco in an iron skillet and preheat it in a 400 degree oven. Or, 5 of Crisco and 1 of bacon fat, if you are not vegan, as we are. Some people like to fry about an inch of salt pork in the skillet, instead of the bacon.
Note: Iron skillets also can be the individual stick style, which our mothers liked, but are very time consuming.
Meanwhile, mix in a bowl,
1.5 cups yellow cornmeal
.5 cup flour
2 teaspoons baking soda.
1 teaspoon salt
Make a hole in the center and stir together,
1.25 cups buttermilk
1 egg  I now use a vegan egg substitute.
Then, gradually bring in the dry ingredients. I use a large fork.  Like mine a little runny and sometimes add more buttermilk.
When the fat is sizzling and the skillet is very hot, pour it into the mixture and fold it in.
Immediately, pour the batter back into the hot skillet. This will give you that brown crusty top you are looking for when you flip it out onto the serving plate.
Bake about 20 minutes, until edges are brown. Run a knife around the edges to loosen and let it rest for a few minutes before flipping out. If your pan is seasoned well, it should not stick.
Never wash your iron skillet to keep it properly seasoned.  I clean mine out with salt and a paper towel with some oil on it.
So get out your well seasoned skillets, eat some cornbread, and by all means let us know your favorite cornbread recipe.
Cheers to Cornbread from me and Sandra B.,